# From old ROOT vectors and matrix (`TVector3`

, `TMatrixT`

) to ROOT GenVector and SMatrix¶

**Table of contents**- From old ROOT vectors and matrix (TVector3, TMatrixT) to ROOT GenVector and SMatrix

## Why?¶

`TVector3`

,`TLorentzVector`

,`TMatrixD`

and such have a large overhead in both memory usage and CPU usage- contain data members that are useful only for ROOT I/O and other ROOT magics (like
`TRef`

) - use virtual functions
- perform additional operations on construction and destruction related to ROOT but not to their data
- the overhead is (relatively) worse for
`TLorentzVector`

and`TVector2`

- contain data members that are useful only for ROOT I/O and other ROOT magics (like
- they are bound to
`double`

precision floating point numbers only

These classes have their use: it's easy to write them directly in a ROOT tree, even on command line, and they can be a target of `TRef`

. But unless these features are explicitly needed, their use is suboptimal.

## Documentation¶

The documentation of the new classes is:

`TVector3`

vs. `ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector`

and `ROOT::Math::PositionVector`

¶

The vectors in GenVector library are template based and have fixed dimensionality, each one with an independent interface:
- dimension 2 ("2D")
- dimension 3 ("3D")
- dimension 1+3 ("Lorentz")

- cartesian (2D, 3D)
- cylindrical: or (3D)
- polar (2D, 3D)
- cartesian with "mass" or "energy"
- cylindrical with "mass" or "energy"

*position*vector: absolute location of a point in 2D/3D space, which react to translations (e.g. location of a vertex)*displacement*vector: the difference between two points, which are invariant for translations (e.g. direction or momentum of a particle)

The two types of vector have different properties and do not share the full range of operations. By comparison, `TVector3`

is effectively a displacement vector.

## Data types¶

While `TVector3`

is quite monolitic, GenVector vectors give us tons of possibilities. Which most of the time we don't need.

An old 3D vector with representation of `double`

could be used as:

```
#include "TVector3.h"
TVector3 v;
```

The equivalent object in GenVector is a either a position or a displacement vector in cartesian "global" coordinates.

```
#include "Math/GenVector/Cartesian3D.h"
#include "Math/GenVector/PositionVector3D.h"
#include "Math/GenVector/DisplacementVector3D.h"
using Point_t = ROOT::Math::PositionVector3D<ROOT::Math::Cartesian3D<double>>;
using Vector_t = ROOT::Math::DisplacementVector3D<ROOT::Math::Cartesian3D<double>>;
Vector_t v;
Point_t p;
```

The declaration of the type is long enough that it deserves an alias. For example, `recob::Track`

uses two aliases defined in `lardataobj/RecoBase/TrackingTypes.h`

: `recob::tracking::Point_t`

and `recob::tracking::Vector_t`

(also available as `recob::Track`

types).
For 2D vectors, the syntax is exactly the same, just with "2D" in place of "3D".

For 3+1 ("Lorentz") vectors, the old:

```
#include "TLorentzVector.h"
TLorentzVector cp;
```

can be replaced by```
#include "Math/GenVector/PxPyPzE4D.h"
#include "Math/GenVector/LorentzVector.h"
using Position4_t = ROOT::Math::LorentzVector<ROOT::Math::PxPyPzE4D<double>>;
Position4_t x;
```

which is a cartesian-like representation.
## Main interface differences¶

The (incomplete) list of interface changes:

- access to component by index, e.g.
`v[1]`

is not available any more; replaced by named read-only access (e.g.`v.Y()`

) and setter methods (e.g.`v.SetY(4.0)`

)

## Updating code¶

It is likely that when you start using GenVector classes you will have to add to the link list of your module or library in `CMakeLists.txt`

the line:

${ROOT_GENVECTOR}

### Creation of a new point/vector¶

The interface to create a GenVector 3D object is similar to `TVector3`

, by component:

```
geo::Point_t point { 1.0, 2.0, 0.0 }; // point at the specified coordinates
geo::Vector_t x { 0.0, 1.0, 0.0 }; // unit vector describing the y axis
```

These vectors can be also copied from any vector class supporting

`X()`

, `Y() and @Z()`

accessors.
### Access and increment of components¶

Given that the mutable access by `operator[]`

is not supported, code like

```
v[0] = 5.0;
v[1] *= 2.0;
std::cout << "(" << v[0] << "; " << v[1] << "; " << v[2] << " )" << std::endl;
```

becomes: ```
v.SetX(5.0);
v.SetY(v.Y() * 2.0);
std::cout << "(" << v.X() << "; " << v.Y() << "; " << v.Z() << " )" << std::endl;
```

For output, LArSoft will also provide direct output support:

`std::cout << v << std::endl;`

.
### Access to components by index¶

Simply put: it's not supported any more. There are rare cases where this is really needed, e.g. if the component to operate on is decided at run time.

If the need arise, please open a LArSoft feature request explaining your use case.

### Computing the middle point¶

The simple operation is not as simple any more for position vectors, which can't be added nor scaled. An utility has been provided in the form of a function or a more versatile class .

### Example: from `recob::Track::Extent()`

update¶

At a certain point, `viod recob::Track::Extent(TVector3&, TVector3&) const`

was deprecated, and a replacement `std::pair<Point_t, Point_t> recob::Track::Extent() const`

was suggested instead.

Here is an example of code update: `larana/T0Finder/PhotonCounterT0Matching_module.cc`

. Note that the headers were not changed because the data types we use are already defined in `Track.h`

. The old code was:

```
std::vector<double> trackStart;
std::vector<double> trackEnd;
// ...
tracklist[iTrk]->Extent(trackStart,trackEnd);
std::vector< art::Ptr<recob::Hit> > allHits = fmtht.at(iTrk);
size_t nHits = allHits.size();
trkTimeStart = allHits[nHits-1]->PeakTime() / timeservice->TPCClock().Frequency(); //Got in ticks, now in us!
trkTimeEnd = allHits[0]->PeakTime() / timeservice->TPCClock().Frequency(); //Got in ticks, now in us!
TrackProp ( trackStart[0], trackEnd[0], TrackLength_X, TrackCentre_X,
trackStart[1], trackEnd[1], TrackLength_Y, TrackCentre_Y,
trackStart[2], trackEnd[2], TrackLength_Z, TrackCentre_Z,
trkTimeStart , trkTimeEnd , trkTimeLengh , trkTimeCentre, // times in us!
TrackLength);
```

and the updated code is:```
recob::Track::Point_t trackStart, trackEnd;
std::tie(trackStart, trackEnd) = tracklist[iTrk]->Extent();
std::vector< art::Ptr<recob::Hit> > allHits = fmtht.at(iTrk);
size_t nHits = allHits.size();
trkTimeStart = allHits[nHits-1]->PeakTime() / timeservice->TPCClock().Frequency(); //Got in ticks, now in us!
trkTimeEnd = allHits[0]->PeakTime() / timeservice->TPCClock().Frequency(); //Got in ticks, now in us!
TrackProp ( trackStart.X(), trackEnd.X(), TrackLength_X, TrackCentre_X,
trackStart.Y(), trackEnd.Y(), TrackLength_Y, TrackCentre_Y,
trackStart.Z(), trackEnd.Z(), TrackLength_Z, TrackCentre_Z,
trkTimeStart , trkTimeEnd , trkTimeLengh , trkTimeCentre, // times in us!
TrackLength);
```

A detail not related to the vector update is the use of `std::tie()`

to unpack a `std::pair`

into two different variables (not needed any more in C++17).The most important change in the use of vectors is that the new ones do not support the indexing

`operator[]`

. Instead, they support the methods `X()`

, `Y()`

and `Z()`

.